LIQUID BIOPSY



Cancer is the second cause of death globally, accounting for nearly 9 million deaths in 2017. It is estimated that metastasis are the primary cause for 90% of all cancer related deaths. Circulating Tumor Cells detection and analysis are the foundation of non-invasive tests supporting early detection, prognosis, theranostic and response monitoring to treatment.

In order to successfully complete the metastatic cascade, cancer cells must:

  • detach from the primary tumor
  • intravasate into the circulatory system
  • elude the immune system control
  • extravasate at distant vascular beds
  • invade and proliferate in distant organs

Therefore, Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) represent a powerful tool for:

  • study of the invasive potential of a cancer
  • early cancer detection
  • non-invasive theranostic

  • Circulating Tumor Cells are rare and heterogeneous. CTC adapt to their new environment (blood) and can modify membrane surface properties (Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition). CTC adapt also to escape immune system control.
  • Isolation technique based on antibodies to capture the CTC can miss cells such as EMT cells and may not be suitable for all cancer types.

Not all cells circulating in the blood are tumor cells: normal cells may detach from organs and circulate.

  • Isolation technic must collect circulating cells while maintaining their morphology and DNA. The technic must be compatible with downstream technologies, from cytology examination to DNA mutation analysis, thus insuring precise characterization of CTC.

  • CTC are the source of “real-time” information of gene and protein mutations of the tumors.
  • CTC combined with circulating free DNA may provide a comprehensive understanding of patient’s cancer dynamics.
  • Technic collecting CTC and cfDNA from the same blood draw will ensure efficient access to both critical information sources.
Illustration of metastatic cascade of cancer cells

In order to successfully complete the metastatic cascade, cancer cells must:

  • detach from the primary tumor
  • intravasate into the circulatory system
  • elude the immune system control
  • extravasate at distant vascular beds
  • invade and proliferate in distant organs
Illustration of circulating tumor cells

Therefore, Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) represent a powerful tool for:

  • study of the invasive potential of a cancer
  • early cancer detection
  • non-invasive theranostic

 

Illustration of the complexity to isolate tumor cells
  • Circulating Tumor Cells are rare and heterogeneous. CTC adapt to their new environment (blood) and can modify membrane surface properties (Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition). CTC adapt also to escape immune system control.
  • Isolation technique based on antibodies to capture the CTC can miss cells such as EMT cells and may not be suitable for all cancer types.

Not all cells circulating in the blood are tumor cells: normal cells may detach from organs and circulate.

  • Isolation technic must collect circulating cells while maintaining their morphology and DNA. The technic must be compatible with downstream technologies, from cytology examination to DNA mutation analysis, thus insuring precise characterization of CTC.
  • CTC are the source of “real-time” information of gene and protein mutations of the tumors.
  • CTC combined with circulating free DNA may provide a comprehensive understanding of patient’s cancer dynamics.
  • Technic collecting CTC and cfDNA from the same blood draw will ensure efficient access to both critical information sources.

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